Revisiting the European Teacher Education Area: The Transformation of Teacher Education Policies and Practices in Europe
Within the broader landscape of the European Higher Education Area, teacher education receives increasing significance as an academic field that contributes to the quality of the teaching labour force and consequently
impacts student learning. This paper aims to explore the European Teacher Education Area (ETEA) by analysing to what extent and how mechanisms, processes, and key agents of Europeanisation, internal or external to the European Union (EU), influence the transformation of teacher education policies and practices in Europe. Transformation is understood in the context of Europeanisation, and emphasis of the analysis is placed on the process rather than the content of transforming teacher education in Europe. To this end, data have been collected through document review and expert interviews with European policy officials. As a result of qualitative content analysis, the data have been clustered and analysed according to the following categories, which mutually reinforce each other: (1) policy coordination; (2) cross-sectoral instruments; (3) evidence-based management; (4) the Bologna process; (5) educational programmes; and (6) stakeholder pressure. Findings
provide a conceptual framework for mapping the ETEA as a complex policy ecosystem that includes vertical and horizontal procedures of Europeanisation. The EU has developed extensive capacities to influence teacher education in Europe and increasingly involves other sectors, such as employment, in this process.
ATEE. (2015). Statutes of association for teacher education in Europe. Retrieved from https://atee.education/who-we-are/
Barber, M., & Mourshed, M. (2007). How the world’s best-performing school systems come out on top. Analysis. New York, NY: McKinsey & Company.
Bologna Working Group. (2005). A Framework for qualifications of the European higher education area. Retrieved from http://www.ecahe.eu/w/index.php/Framework_for_Qualifications_of_the_European_Higher_Education_Area
Börzel, T., & Risse, T. (2003). Conceptualising the domestic impact of Europe. In K. Featherstone & C. Radaelli (Eds.), The politics of Europeanization (pp. 57–82). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Buchberger, F., Campos, B. P., Kallos, D., & Stephenson, J. (Eds.) (2000). Green paper on teacher education in Europe. Umeå: University of Umeå.
Caena, F. (2014). Comparative glocal perspectives on European teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(1), 106–122.
Cedefop. (2016). Application outcomes of learning across approaches Europe: A comparative study. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Cedefop. (2017). Defining, writing and applying learning outcomes: A European handbook. Luxembourg:
Publications Office of the European Union.
Cedefop. (2018, January 18). Projects. Retrieved from http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/el/events-andprojects/
projects Corbett, A. (2011). Ping Pong: Competing leadership for reform in EU higher education 1998-2006.
European Journal of Education, 46(1), 36–53.
Council of Europe. (2018a). Closure of the Pestalozzi Programme since the end of 2017. Retrieved from
Council of Europe. (2018b). Pestalozzi Programme. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/
Dale, R. (2009). Contexts, constraints and resources in the development of European education space and European education policy. In R. Dale & S. Robertson (Eds.), Globalisation and Europeanisation in education (pp. 23–43). Oxford, UK: Symposium Books.
Domović, V., & Čuk, M. P. (2014). Editorial - National vs. European trends within teacher education – possibilities and challenges. CEPS Journal, 4(4), 5–10.
ETUCE/EFEE. (2012). Technical report of EFEE-ETUCE survey on recruitment and retention in the education sector. Retrieved from https://www.csee-etuce.org/images/Publications/VP-2011-001-0160_Technical_Report_EN.pdf
ETUCE. (2008). Teacher education in Europe: An ETUCE policy paper. Brussels: ETUCE.
Eurofound. (2014). European social partners. Retrieved from https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/industrial-relations-dictionary/european-social-partners
European Commission. (n.d.-a). What is Horizon 2020? Retrieved April 10, 2018, from https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/what-horizon-2020
European Commission. (n.d.-b). Sectoral social dialogue - education. Retrieved April 7, 2018, from http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=480&langId=en&intPageId=1822#top-page
European Commission. (2005). Common European principles for teacher competences and qualifications.
Retrieved from http://www.pef.uni-lj.si/bologna/dokumenti/eu-common-principles.pdf
European Commission. (2012). Supporting the teaching professions for better learning outcomes. Accompanying document to the rethinking education: Investing in skills for better socio-economic outcomes.
Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/repository/education/policy/school/doc/
European Commission. (2013). Supporting teacher educators for better learning outcomes. Luxembourg:
Publications Office of the European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/
European Commission. (2016a). How the ESF works. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from http://ec.europa.eu/
European Commission. (2016b). Ex-post evaluation of the 2007-2013 ESF Programmes. Retrieved from
European Commission. (2016c). 2016 European semester: Country specific recommendations / Council
recommendations. Retrieved April 6, 2018, from https://ec.europa.eu/info/european-semester/
European Commission. (2017a). Erasmus+ annual report 2016. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/
European Commission. (2017b). ERASMUS+ The EU programme for education, training, youth and
sport (2014-2020). Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/sites/erasmusplus2/files/gen-erasmusplus-factsheet-en-version11-2017-hd.pdf
European Commission. (2018a). ET 2020 working groups – European Commission. Retrieved April 6,
2018, from http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/expert-groups
European Commission. (2018b). How does the EQF work? Retrieved April 6, 2018, from https://ec.europa.eu/ploteus/content/how-does-eqf-work
European Commission. (2018c). Boosting teacher quality – Pathways to effective policies. Luxembourg:
Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. (2015). The teaching profession in Europe: Practices,
perceptions, and policies. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. (2017). Support mechanisms for evidence-based policymaking
in education. Eurydice report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice. (2018). Teaching careers in Europe: Access, progress and
support. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
European Council. (1988). Resolution on the European dimension of education. Retrieved from http://
European Doctorate in Teacher Education (EDiTE). (2014). Teacher education and teacher education
policies in the European Union. Retrieved from http://www.fmik.elte.hu/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/EDiTE_Budapest-conference_Issues-Paper_2014071.pdf
EDiTE Website. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.edite.eu/
European Parliament and Council of the European Union. (2008). Establishment of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. doi:10.2766/14352
European Parliament and Council of the European Union. (2013). Directive 2013/55/EU of the European parliament and of the Council. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex%3A32013L0055
European Union. (2015). ECTS users’ guide. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
Featherstone, K., & Kazamias, G. (Eds.) (2001). Europeanization and the southern periphery. London, UK, and New York, NY: Routledge.
Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research (4th ed.). London, UK: Sage Publications.
Gassner, O., Kerger, L., & Schratz, M. (Eds.) (2010). The first ten years after Bologna. Bucureşti: Editura
Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Grek, S. (2010). International organisations and the shared construction of policy ‘problems’: Problematisation and change in education governance in Europe. European Educational Research Journal, 9(3), 396–406.
Grek, S., & Lawn, M. (2009). A short history of Europeanizing education. European Education, 41(1), 32–54.
Halász, G. (2013). European Union: The strive for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. In Yan Wang (Ed.), Education policy reform trends in G20 members (pp. 267–288). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Retrieved from http://halaszg.ofi.hu/download/G20_EU_paper.htm
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning meta-study. Oxon, UK: Routledge.
Holdsworth, P. (2010). The European Union and teacher education. In O. Gassner, L. Kerger, & M. Schratz (Eds.), The first ten years after Bologna (pp. 43–52). Bucureşti: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Howell, K. (2002). Developing conceptualizations of Europeanization and European integration: Mixing
methodologies (ESRC Seminar Series / UACES Study Group on the Europeanization of British Politics). Retrieved from http://aei.pitt.edu/1720/
Hudson, B., & Zgaga, P. (Eds.) (2008). Teacher education policy in Europe: A voice of higher education institutions. Umeå: University of Umeå.
Hudson, B., & Zgaga, P. (2017). History, context and overview: Implications for teacher education policy, practice and future research. In B. Hudson (Ed.), Overcoming fragmentation in teacher education policy and practice (pp. 1–25). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ireland’s Presidency of the Council of the EU - Priorities. (2013). Retrieved April 6, 2018, from https://www.education.ie/en/Press-Events/Events/Ireland-s-Presidency-of-the-Council-of-the-EU/Priorities.html
Iucu, R. (2010). Ten years after Bologna: On the way towards a European teacher education area. In O. Gassner, L. Kerger, & M. Schratz (Eds.), The first ten years after Bologna (pp. 53–95). Bucureşti: Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti.
Kotthoff, H.-G., & Denk, R. (2007). Last past the post? Teacher education and the European higher education area. In H.-G. Kotthoff & S. Moutsios (Eds.), Education policies in Europe economy, citizenship, diversity (pp. 115–130). Münster: Waxmann.
Louis, K. S., & Velzen, B. van (Eds.). (2012). Educational policy in an international context: Political culture and its effects. New York, NY: Palgrave/McMillan.
Mayring, P. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: Theoretical foundation, basic procedures and software solution. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-395173
Moutsios, S. (2007). The European Union and its education policy. In H.-G. Kotthoff & S. Moutsios (Eds.), Education policies in Europe. Economy, citizenship, diversity. (pp. 15–25). Münster: Waxmann.
OECD. (2005). Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Pépin, L. (2007). The history of EU cooperation in the field of education and training: How lifelong learning became a strategic objective. European Journal of Education, 42(1), 121–132.
Radaelli, C. M. (2004). Europeanisation: Solution or problem ? European Integration Online Papers (EIoP), 8(16), 1–26. Retrieved from http://www.eiop.or.at/eiop/pdf/2004-016.pdf
Sander, T., Buchberger, F., Greaves, A., & Kallos, D. (1996). Teacher education in Europe. Evaluation and perspectives. Osnabrück: Universität Osnabrück.
Schratz, M. (2005). What is a ‘European Teacher’? A discussion paper European network on teacher education policies (ENTEP). Retrieved from http://www.pef.uni-lj.si/bologna/dokumenti/posvetschratz.pdf
Schratz, M. (2014). The European teacher: Transnational perspectives in teacher education policy and
practice. CEPS Journal, 4(4), 11–27.
Standards and guidelines for quality assurance in the European higher education area (ESG). (2015). Brussels. Retrieved from http://www.enqa.eu/index.php/home/esg/
Stéger, C. (2014a). Review and analysis of the EU teacher-related policies and activities. European Journal of Education, 49(3), 332–347.
Stéger, C. (2014b). State of play in teacher education in Hungary AFTER the Bologna reforms. Budapest:
ELTE Eötvös Kiadó.
Swennen, A., & Klink, M. van der. (2009). Becoming a teacher educator: Theory and practice for teacher educators. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.
Teachers Task Force. (2018, February 22). SABER Country reports: Data collection for policy design.
Retrieved from http://www.teachersforefa.unesco.org/v2/index.php/en/newss/item/601-saber-countryreports-
Tuning. (2008). Universities’ contribution to the Bologna process. An introduction (2nd ed.). Bilbao: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto.
Tuning. (2009). Reference points for the design and delivery of degree programmes in education. Bilbao:
Publicaciones de la Universidad de Deusto.
UNESCO. (2015). Teacher policy development guide: Summary. Paris: UNESCO.
Vidović, V. V., & Domović, V. (2013). Teachers in Europe - Main trends, issues and challenges. Croatian Journal of Education, 15(3), 219–250.
Wach, K. (2017). Europeanisation: Its definition, research approaches and dimensions. In P. Stanek & K. Wach (Eds.), Macro-, meso- and microeconomic dimensions of Europeanisation (pp. 15–31). Warszawa: PWN.
Worek, D., & Elsner, D. (2017). First European conference on internationalization of teacher education. Unpublished manuscript.
World Bank. (2013). What matters most for teacher policies: A framework paper (SABER Working Paper Series No. Number 4). Retrieved from http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/TCH/Framework_SABER-Teachers.pdf
Zgaga, P. (2013). The future of European teacher education in the heavy seas of higher education. Teacher Development, 17(3), 347–361.
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.