‘Knowledge about Religions’ and Analytical Skills in Religious Education: Reflections from a Norwegian Context
Religious education appears in many different models and varies between educational systems and national contexts. Theoretically, religious education is usually divided into confessional and non-confessional models. However, as several researchers have pointed out, the non-confessional models can be ‘marinated’ in confessional religion. In most national contexts, regardless of the model on which it is based, religious education is intended to serve the promotion of social cohesion by way of promoting knowledge and understanding of the new multi‑religious world. However, in official documents and scholarly literature, there is a taken-for-granted relationship between ‘knowledge of religion’ and such general aims. In the article, critical questions concerning this relationship will be raised.
Alberts, W. (2007). Integrative religious education in Europe. A study-of-religions approach. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Alberts, W. (2017). Reconstruction, critical accommodation or business as usual? Challenges of criticisms of the World Religions Paradigm to the design of teaching programmes in the study of religions. Method and Theory in the Study of Religion, 29(4-5), 443–458. doi:https://doi.org/10.1163/15700682-12341404
Andreassen, B.-O. (2013). Religion education in Norway: Tension or harmony between human rights and Christian cultural heritage? Temenos, 49(2), 137–164.
Andreassen, B.-O. (2014). Christianity as culture and religions as religions. An analysis of the core curriculum as framework for Norwegian RE. British Journal of Religious Education, 36(3), 265–281.
Andreassen, B.-O. (2017). Hvordan kan vi forstå kristendommens sentrale plass i skolens religionsfag? [How can we understand Christianity’s central position in RE?]. In M. von der Lippe & S. Undheim (Eds.), Religion i skolen. Didaktiske perspektiver på religions- og livssynsfaget (pp. 35–53). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Avalos, H. (2009). Is biblical illiteracy a bad thing? Reflections on bibliolatry in the modern academy. Council of Societies for the Study of Religion. The CSSR Bulletin, 38(2), 47–52.
Berglund, J. (2013). Swedish religion education: Objective but marinated in Lutheran Protestantism? Temenos, 49(2), 165–184.
Cotter, C. R., & Robertson, D. G. (2016). The world religions paradigm in contemporary religious studies. In C. R. Cotter & D. G. Robertson (Eds.), After world religions. Reconstructing religious studies (pp. 1–20). London, UK: Routledge.
Fujiwara, S. (2010). On qualifying religious literacy. Recent debates on higher education and religious studies in Japan. Teaching Theology and Religion, 13 (3), 223–236. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9647.2010.00615.x
Gosh, R., Manuel, A., Chan, W. Y., Dilmulati, D., & Babaei, M. (2016). Education and security. A global literature review on the role of education in countering violent religious extremism. Tony Blair Institute for Global Change. Retrieved from https://institute.global/sites/default/files/inline-files/IGC_Education%20and%20Security.pdf
Greenlaw, J. (2015). Deconstructing the metanarrative of the 21st century skills movement. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 47(9), 894–903. doi:10.1080/00131857.2015.1035156
Greenlaw, J. C., & Fox, M. (2007). The New Brunswick dedicated notebook research report: Final report. Fredericton: New Brunswick Department of Education.
Hervieu-Léger, D. (1999). Religion as memory. Reference to tradition and the constitution of a heritage of belief in modern societies. In J. G. Platvoet & A. L. Molendijk (Eds.), The pragmatics of defining religion. Contexts, concepts and contests (pp. 72–93). Leiden: Brill.
Hilt, L. T., Riese, H., & Søreide, G. E. (2019). Narrow identity resources for future students: The 21st century skills movement encounters the Norwegian education policy context. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 51 (3) 384–402. doi:10.1080/00220272.2018.1502356
Hovdenak, S. S., & Stray, J. H. (2015). Hva skjer i skolen? En kunnskapssosiologisk analyse av norsk utdanningspolitikk fra 1990-tallet og frem til i dag [What happens in school? A Knowledge-Sociological analysis of Norwegian educational policies from the 1990s until today]. Bergen: Fagbokforlaget.
Husebø, D. (2014). Tro- og livssynsfag i Skandinavia – en sammenligning [RE in Scandinavia – a comparison]. Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, 98(5), 364–374.
Jackson, R. (2004). Rethinking religious education and plurality. London, UK: Routledge Falmer.
Jackson, R. (2007). The interpretive approach. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious diversity and intercultural education: A reference book for schools (pp. 79–90). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Jackson, R. (2012). The interpretive approach as a research tool: Inside the REDCo project. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Religion, education, dialogue and conflict. Perspectives on religious education research (pp. 84–102). London, UK: Routledge.
Jackson, R. (2014). Signposts – Policy and practice for teaching about religions and non-religious world views in intercultural education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Jensen, B. E. (2009). Usable pasts: Comparing approaches to popular and public history. In P. Ashton & H. Kean (Eds.), People and their pasts. Public history today (pp. 42–56). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jensen, T., & Kjeldsen, K. (2013). RE in Denmark – Political and professional discourses and debates, past and present. Temenos, 49 (2), 185–223.
Kean, H., & Ashton, P. (2009). Introduction. In P. Ashton & H. Kean (Eds.), People and their pasts. Public history today (pp. 1–20). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Keast, J. (Ed.) (2007). Religious diversity and intercultural education: A reference book for schools. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Kruse, T., & Warring, A. (2015). Historiebrug på kryds og tværs – afrunding [Crisscross use of history – a summary]. In T. Kruse & A. Warring (Eds.), Fortider tur/retur. Reenactment og historiebrug (pp. 109–113). Fredriksberg: Samfundslitteratur.
Lippe, M. von der, & Undheim, S. (2017). Hva skal vi med et felles religionsfag i skolen? [Why common compulsory RE in school?]. In M. Von der Lippe & S. Undheim (Eds.), Religion i skolen. Didaktiske perspektiver på religions- og livssynsfaget (pp. 11–24). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
Milot, M. (2007). Co-operative learning. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious diversity and intercultural education: A reference book for schools (pp. 51–56). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Moore, D. (2007). Overcoming religious illiteracy. A cultural studies approach to the study of religion in secondary education. New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.
The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (2015). Curriculum for knowledge of Christianity, religion, philosophies of life and ethics [KRLE]. Oslo: Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training. Retrieved from https://www.udir.no/kl06/RLE1-02?lplang=http://data.udir.no/kl06/eng
NOU - Official Norwegian Reports [Norske offentlige utdredninger]. (2015). The school of the future. Renewal of subjects and competences. Oslo: Ministry of Education and Research.
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). (2018). The future of education and skills. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/education/2030/E2030%20Position%20Paper%20(05.04.2018).pdf
OSCE (Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe). (2007). Toledo guiding principles on teaching about religions and beliefs in public schools. Warsaw: OSCE/ODIHR. Retrieved from https://www.osce.org/odihr/29154?download=true
Owen, S. (2011). The world religion paradigm. Time for a change. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 10(3), 253–268. doi:10.1177/1474022211408038
Pedlex (2018). Dybdelæring og kjerneelementer i fag [Depth learning and core elements in school subjects]. Oslo: Pedlex.
Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching digital natives: Partnering for real learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Prothero, S. (2007). Religious literacy: What every American needs to know – and doesn’t. New York, NY: Harper Collins.
The Royal Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs. (1994). Core curriculum. Oslo: The Ministry. Retrieved from https://www.udir.no/globalassets/filer/lareplan/generell-del/core_curriculum_english.pdf
Smith, J. Z. (2013]. The introductory course: Less is better. In C. I. Lehrich (Ed.), On teaching religion. Essays by Jonathan Z. Smith (pp. 11–19). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Weissman, D. (2009). Teaching religion in an inter-religious context: A form of peace-building. In L. Roos & J. Berglund (Eds.), Your heritage and mine. Teaching in a multi-religious classroom (pp. 121–132). Uppsala: Swedish Science Press.
Weninger, C. (2017). The “vernacularization” of global education policy: Media and digital literacy as twenty-first century skills in Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 37(4), 500–516. doi:10.1080/02188791.2017.1336429
Whitlock, A. (2017). The role of religious education in addressing extremism. In M. Castelli & M. Chater (Eds.), We need to talk about religious education. Manifestos for future RE (pp. 185–200). Jessica Kingsley Publishers: London.
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.