Challenges and Recommendations for Improving Chemistry Education and Teaching in the Republic of North Macedonia

  • Marina Stojanovska Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje
  • Ivanka Mijić Bureau for Development of Education, Ministry of Education and Science, North Macedonia.
  • Vladimir M. Petruševski Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje
Keywords: chemistry teaching, curricula, education reforms, natural sciences


The study aims to present the development of education in North Macedonia from the country’s independence to the present day, as documented in several national reports and other official documents. The focus is on development and changes in chemistry education throughout the years of primary, secondary and higher education. Particular attention is devoted to the introduction of the new curricula of natural sciences courses in primary education, which is an adapted curricula of the Cambridge International Examinations, and the use of information and communication technology in increasing the efficiency of the education system. Despite numerous reforms over the years, the country is still faced with various challenges and issues regarding chemistry teaching. Investment in education is constantly decreasing and no notable improvements in conditions for teaching chemistry are being made. Recommendations are made regarding the need for appropriately educated, qualified and motivated teaching staff, well-equipped laboratories and teaching resources, continuous professional development of teachers, mutual cooperation of all stakeholders in the educational process, and continuous support from the authorities and policy makers for gifted pupils and chemistry teachers at all levels.


Download data is not yet available.


Ardac, D., & Akaygun, S. (2004). Effectiveness of multimedia-based instruction that emphasizes molecular representations on students’ understanding of chemical change. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(4), 317–337. doi:10.1002/tea.20005

Jašari, B. (Ed.). (2010). Употребата на компјутери и интернет во образовниот систем на РМ [The use of computers and the Internet in the education system of RM]. Skopje: Foundation Open Society Institute – Macedonia: Metamorphosis Foundation.

Barbour, M. K., & Reeves, T.C. (2009). The reality of virtual schools: A review of the literature. Computers & Education, 52(2), 402–416. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2008.09.009

Carvalho-Knighton, K. M., & Keen-Rocha, L. (2007). Using technology to enhance the effectiveness of general chemistry laboratory courses. Journal of Chemical Education, 84(4), 727–730.

Centurino, V. A. S., & Jones, L. R. (2017). TIMSS 2019 Science Framework. In I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin (Eds.), TIMSS 2019 assessment frameworks (pp. 27–55). Boston, MA: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA).

Đeladini, K., Stojanovski, T., Mitrevska, T. A., & Andreevski, G. (2004). National report for development of education in the Republic of Macedonia for 2001–2004. Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science.

Demirdogen, B., & Cakmakci, G. (2014). Investigating students’ interest in chemistry through self-generated questions. Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 15(2), 192–206. doi:10.1039/C4RP00037D

Doctoral School, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. (2008). Retrieved from

European Commission. (2019). North Macedonia 2019 Report. Retrieved from

Geramitčioski, T., Velkovski, Z., Popovski, Z. T., Simovska, E., Murati, Đ., Adamčeska, S., … Gjorgjijevski, T. (2004). Национална програма за развој на образованието во Република Македонија 2005-2015 [National programme for the development of education in Macedonia for 2005–2015]. Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science.

Manevska, M., & Fotinovska, B. (Eds.) (2019). Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, 1949–2019, 70 Years. Skopje: Birografika.

Metz, K. (1997). On the complex relation between cognitive development research and children’s science curricula. Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 151–163. Retrieved from

Ministry of Education and Science. (2018, July 10). Отчет на Адеми: Образовни реформи по европски терк [The Ademi report: Educational reforms by European standards] [Press release]. Retrieved from

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD. (2019). Преглед на ОЕЦД за евалуацијата и оценувањето во образованието во Северна Македонија: Оценка и препораки [Review on evaluation and assessment in education in North Macedonia: Assessment and recommendations]. Skopje: UNICEF.

Report on the progress towards the millennium development goals Republic of Macedonia. (2009). Skopje: United Nations Development Program UNDP.

Spasovska, M. (2017, June 29). Не сме подготвени за образование по Кембриџ [We are not ready for Cambridge education]. Radio Free Europe. Retrieved from

Stojanovski, T., Andreevski, G., & Spasovski, L. (1995). National report on education in for 1994–1996. (1995). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Physical Culture.

Trajkovska, B., Trajkovska, A., Salai, N., Atovska, S. M., Dimitrova, Lj., & Murtezi, F. (2019). Стратешки план 2019−2021 [Strategic plan 2019−2021]. Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from

Tytler, R. (2002). Teaching for understanding in science: Student conceptions research, and changing views of learning. Australian Science Teachers’ Journal, 48(3), 14–21.

Vosniadou, S., Ioannides, C. P., Dimitrakopoulou, A., & Papademetriou, E. (2001). Designing learning environments to promote conceptual change in science. Learning and Instruction, 11(4-5), 381–419. doi:10.1016/s0959-4752(00)00038-4

Watson, K., Steele, F., Vozzo, L., & Aubusson, P. (2007). Changing in the subject: Retraining teachers to teach science. Research in Science Education, 37(2), 141–154. Retrieved from

Wilson, C. (2000). Developing and disseminating teacher knowledge. Research in Science Education, 30(3), 301–316. Retrieved from

Анализа на гимназиското образование во нашата земја и во други земји на ЕУ [An analysis of gymnasium education in our country and other EU countries]. (2008). Skopje: Bureau for Development of Education.

Закон за високото образование [Law on Higher Education]. (2018). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from

Закон за основното образование [Law on Primary Education]. (2019). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from

Закон за средното образование [Law on Secondary Education]. (2017). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from

Концепција за деветгодишното основно воспитание и образование [The concept for nine-year primary upbringing and education]. (2007). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from

Стратегија за образованието за 2018-2015 година и Акциски план [Strategic plan on education 2018-2025 and Action plan]. (2018). Skopje: Ministry of Education and Science. Retrieved from