The Mediating Role of Parents and School in Peer Aggression Problems
Starting from the ecological framework, the present study aimed to examine the mediating effects of parental supervision and school climate on the relationship between exosystem variables (time spent with media and perceived neighbourhood dangerousness) and peer aggression problems (peer aggression and victimisation). The participants were 880 primary school students. The data were analysed with multiple regression. The results show that both mediators (parental supervision and school climate) have statistically significant partial mediating effects on peer aggression and victimisation. If students experienced more parental supervision, there was a decrease in the relationship between a) time spent with media and peer aggression, and b) perceived neighbourhood dangerousness and peer aggression and victimisation. Identical findings were obtained for positive school climate. Thus, positive school climate and parental supervision served as protective factors against the negative influence of dangerous neighbourhoods and excessive use of media on peer aggression problems.
Aneshensel, C. S., & Sucoff, C. A. (1996). The neighborhood context of adolescent mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37(4), 293–310. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137258
Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis. Prentice-Hall.
Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 38(1), 101–121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9271-1
Berkowitz, L. (1993). Aggression: Its causes, consequences, and control. McGraw‐Hill.
Bowes, L. M., Arseneault, L., Maughan, B., Taylor, A., Caspi, A., & Moffitt T. E. (2009). School, neighbourhood, and family factors are associated with children’s bullying involvement: A nationally representative longitudinal study. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 545–553.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723–742.
Bradshaw, C. P., Rodgers, C. R. R., Ghandour, L. A., & Garbarino, J. (2009). Social–cognitive mediators of the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behaviour. School Psychology, 24(3), 199–210. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017362
Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 471–489.
Dooley, J. J., Pyzalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Journal of Psychology, 217(4), 182–188. https://doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.182
Dusi, P. (2012). The Family-School Relationships in Europe: A Research Review. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 2(1), 13–33.
Ferrer, B. M., Ruiz, D. M., Amador, L. V., & Orford, J. (2011). School victimization among adolescents. An analysis from an ecological perspective. Psychosocial Intervention, 20(2), 149–160. https://doi.org/10.5093/in2011v20n1a8
Gaias, L. M., Lindstrom Johnson, S., White, R. M. B., Pettigrew, J., & Dumka, L. (2019). Positive school climate as a moderator of violence exposure for Colombian adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 63(1-2), 17–31. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12300
Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P. J., Linder, J. R., & Walsh, D. A. (2004). The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent aggressive attitudes and behaviours. Journal of Adolescence, 27(1), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.002
Gentile, D. A., Reimer, R. A., Nathanson, A. I., Walsh, D. A., & Eisenmann, J. C. (2014). Protective effects of parental monitoring of children’s media use: A prospective study. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 479–84. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.146
Gentile, D. A., & Walsh, D. A. (2002). A normative study of family media habits. Journal of Applied Psychology, 23(2), 157–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193‐3973(02)00102‐8
Hanish, L. D., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., & Denning, D. (2004). Bullying among young children: The influence of peers and teachers. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 141–159). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hawley, P. H., & Vaughn, B. E. (2003). Aggression and adaptive functioning: The bright side to bad behaviour. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 49(3), 239–242. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2003.0012
Harel-Fisch, Y., Walsh S. D., Fogel-Grinvald, H., Amitai, G., Pickett, W., Molcho, M., Due, P., Gaspar de Matos, M., & Craig, W. (2010). Negative school perceptions and involvement in school bullying: A universal relationship across 40 countries. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 639–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.09.008
Huesmann, L.R., & Eron, L.D. (Eds.) (1986). Television and the aggressive child: A cross-national comparison. Erlbaum.
Kasen, S., Berenson, K., Cohen, P., & Johnson, J. G. (2004). The effects of school climate on changes in aggressive and other behaviours related to bullying. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 187–210). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Keresteš, G., Brković, I., Kuterovac Jagodić, G., & Greblo, Z. (2012). Development and validation of parental behaviour questionnaire. Suvremena psihologija, 15(1), 23–42.
Khoury‐Kassabri, M., Benbenishty, R., Avi Astor, R., & Zeira, A. (2004). The contributions of community, family and school variables to student victimisation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(3), 187–204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464‐004‐7414‐4
Kim, S., Orpinas, P., Kamphaus, R., & Kelder, S. H. (2011). A multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among early adolescents from urban disadvantaged neighbourhoods. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(3), 215–230. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024116
Kuntsche, E. N. (2004). Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? Multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34(3), 230-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2003.05.001
Lambert, S. F., Ialongo, N. S., Boyd, R. C., & Cooley, M. R. (2005). Risk factors for community violence exposure in adolescence. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1-2), 29–48. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-6231-8
Lee, C. H. (2011). An ecological systems approach to bullying behaviours among middle school students in the United States. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(8), 1664–1693. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510370591
Lereya, S. T., Samara, M., & Wolke, D. (2013). Parenting behaviour and the risk of becoming a victim and a bully/victim: A meta-analysis study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37(12), 1091–1108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.03.001
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighbourhoods they live in: The effects of neighbourhood residence upon child and adolescent outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–337. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.2.309
Low, S., & Espelage, D. (2014). Conduits from community violence exposure to peer aggression and victimisation: contributions of parental monitoring, impulsivity, and deviancy. Journal of counseling psychology, 61(2), 221–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035207
Nader, K. (2008). Understanding and assessing trauma and children and adolescents: Measures, methods, and youth in context. Routledge.
Orpinas, P., & Horne, A. M. (2006). Risk and protective factors for bullying and aggression. In P. Orpinas & A. M. Horne (Eds.), Bullying prevention: Creating a positive school climate and developing social competence (pp. 33–53). American Psychological Association.
Petrie, K. (2014). The relationship between school climate and student bullying. TEACH Journal of Christian Education, 8(1), 26–35.
Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., & Meece, D. W. (1999). The impact of after-school peer contact on early adolescent externalising problems is moderated by parental monitoring, perceived neighbourhood safety, and prior adjustment. Child Development, 70(3), 768–778. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00055
Preacher, K. J., & Kelley, K. (2011). Effect size measures for mediation models: Quantitative strategies for communicating indirect effects. Psychological Methods, 16(2), 93–115. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022658
Rajhvajn Bulat, L., & Ajduković, M. (2012). Family and psychosocial determinants of youth peer violence. Psychological Topics, 21(1), 167–194.
Swearer, S. M., & Doll, B. (2001). Bullying in schools: An ecological framework. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 2(2-3), 7–23. https://doi.org/10.1300/J135v02n02_02
Swearer, S. M., & Espelage, D. L. (2004). A social‐ecological framework of bullying among youth. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools. A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 1–12). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Swearer, S. M., Peugh, J., Espelage, D. L., Siebecker, A. B., Kingsbury, W. L., & Bevins, K. S. (2006). A socioecological model for bullying prevention and intervention in early adolescence: An exploratory examination. In S. R. Jimerson & M. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 257–273). Erlbaum.
Tolan, P., Gorman-Smith, D., & Henry, D. B. (2003). The developmental ecology of urban males’ youth violence. Developmental Psychology, 39(2), 274–291. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.524
Trentacosta, C. J., Hyde, L. W., Shaw, D. S., & Cheong, J. (2009). Adolescent dispositions for antisocial behaviour in context: The roles of neighbourhood dangerousness and parental knowledge. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(3), 564–575. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016394
Tubbs, J. E., & Garner, M. (2008). The impact of school climate on school outcomes. Journal of College Teaching and Learning, 5(9), 17–26.
Tušak, M. (2001). Aggression and violence in school. [Agresivnost in nasilje v šoli.] Šport mladih: revija za šport otrok in mladine, 9(65), 42–43.
Vaala, S. E., & Bleakley, A. (2015). Monitoring, mediating, and modeling: Parental influence on adolescent computer and internet use in the United States. Journal of Children and Media, 9(1), 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2015.997103
Velki, T. (2012). Verifying the ecological model of peer violence behaviour [Unpublished doctoral thesis]. Croatia University of Zagreb, Zagreb.
Velki, T. (2018). Verifying the ecological model of peer aggression on Croatian students. Psychology in the Schools, 55(10), 1302–1320. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22178
Velki, T., & Kuterovac Jagodić, G. (2015). Role of family structure and process variables in the explanation of children’s peer violence. Annual of Social Work, 22(2), 271–298. https://doi.org/10.3935/ljsr.v22i2.22
Velki, T., & Kuterovac Jagodić, G. (2017). The role of frequency and social context of different electronic media use in peer violence among children. Studia Psychologica, 59(1), 34–49. https://doi.org/10.21909/sp.2017.01.729
Velki, T., Kuterovac Jagodić, G., & Antunović, A. (2014). Development and validation of Croatian school climate survey for students. Suvremena psihologija, 17(2), 151–166.
You, S., Kim, E., & Kim, M. (2014). An ecological approach to bullying in Korean adolescents. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/prp.2014.1
Yuhong, Z. (2012). A study of child bullying victimisation in Xi’an, China: Prevalence, correlates and co‐occurrence with family violence [unpublished doctoral thesis]. The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
Zimmerman, F. J., Glew, G. M., Christakis, D. A., & Katon, W. (2005). Early cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television watching as predictors of subsequent bullying among grade-school children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159(4), 384–388. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.159.4.384
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.