Teacher Competencies through the Prism of Educational Research
The present article focuses on teacher competencies as a major factor that impacts student learning. Ultimately, all attempts to improve education converge in the teacher and the quality of his/her work with students. With their teaching methods, their communication and their classroom management, teachers can structure the kind of learning environment that will either promote or hinder learning. The purpose of the article is to analyse research on educational productivity in order to select the most important teacher competencies that are related to student achievement. A model of teacher competencies is developed that serves as a framework for understanding the synergetic effects of teacher competencies on achievement thorough promoting students’ cognitive, affective and social processes. The teacher competencies that impact each of the processes are described and their impact on student achievement is explained.
Apthorp, H. S. (2010). Identifying similarities and differences. In A. D. Beesley & H. S. Apthorp (Eds.), Classroom instruction that works. Research report (pp. 14–31). McRel Making a Difference. Retrieved 18.08.2014 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543521
Beesley, A. D., & Apthorp H. S. (2010). Classroom instruction that works. Research report. McRel Making a Difference. Retrieved 18.08.2014 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543521
Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: a new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, teachers and students. Learning and Instruction, 7(2), 161–186.
Carbonneau, K. J., Marley, S. C., & Selig, J. P. (2013). A meta-analysis of the efficacy of teaching mathematics with concrete manipulatives. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), 380–400.
Chattey, R., Friedman, J. N., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Whitemore Schanzenbach, D., & Yaga, D. (2010). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings. Evidence from project STAR. NBER Working Paper Series. Paper NO. 16381. Retrieved 09.01.2011 from http://obs.rc.fas.harvard.edu/chetty/STAR.pdf
Chetty, R., Friedman, J. N., & Rockoff, J. E. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: Teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood. NBER Working Paper Series. Working Paper 17699. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 09.09.2014 from http://obs.rc.fas.harvard.edu/chetty/value_added.pdf
Chiu, C. W. T. (1998). Synthesizing metacognitive interventions: What training characteristics can improve reading performance. Paper presented at symposium, “Metacognition: Assessment & Training”, at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, in San Diego, California. April 13-17, 1998. Retrieved 20.08.2014 from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED420844.pdf
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research, 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1–62.
Cornelius White, J. (2007). Learner-cantered teacher-students relationships are effective: A metaanalysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 113–143.
Daling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Dexter, D. D., Park, Y. J., & Huges, C. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of graphic organizers and science instruction for adolescents with learning disabilities: Implications for the intermediate and secondary science classroom. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 26(4), 204–213
Dignath, C., & Bűttner, G. (2008).Components of fostering self-regulated learning among students. A meta-analysis of interventions at primary and secondary school level. Metacognition Learning, 3, 231–264.
Dignath, C., Buettner, G., & Langfeldt, H. P. (2008). How can primary school students learn self-regulated learning strategies most effectively? A meta-analysis on self-regulation training programmes. Educational Research Review, 3, 101–129.
Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Lűdtke, O., Pekrun, R., & Sutton, R. (2009). Emotional transmission in the classroom: exploring the relationship between teacher and student enjoyment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(3), 705–716. DOI: 10.1037/a0014695
Garcia, T., & Pintrich, P. R. (1994). Regulating motivation and cognition in the classroom. The role of self-schema’s and self-regulatory strategies. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Selfregulation of learning and performance: Issues and educational applications (pp. 127–153). Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Hacker, D. J. (1998). Definitions and empirical foundations. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 1–24). Mahwah, NJ: LEA.
Hattie, J. A. C. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: Rutledge.
Hattie, J. A. C., & Clinton, J. (2008). Identifying accomplished teachers: A validation study. In L. Ingvarson & J. A. C. Hattie (Eds.), Assessing teachers for professional certification. The first decade of the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (pp. 313–344). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Haycock, K. (1998). Good teaching matters… a lot. Thinking K-16, 3(2), 1–14.
Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Boston: Academic Press.
Igel, C., Clemens, T., & Apthorp, H. (2010). Setting objective and providing feedback. In A. D. Beesley, & H. S. Apthorp (Eds.), Classroom instruction that works. Research report (pp. 105–113).
McRel Making a Difference. Retrieved 18.08.2014 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543521
Igel, C., Clemens, T., Apthorp, H., & Bachler, S. (2010). Summarizing and note taking. In A. D. Beesley, & H. S. Apthorp (Eds.), Classroom instruction that works. Research report (pp. 14–31). McRel Making a Difference. Retrieved 18.08.2014 from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED543521
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1987). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive and individualistic learning. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1992). Positive interdependence: Key to effective cooperation. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz & N. Miller (Eds.), Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning (pp. 174–199). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kablan, Z., Topan, B., & Erkan, B. (2013). The effectiveness level of material use in classroom instruction: A meta-analysis study. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 13(3), 1638-1644.
Kagan, S. (1989). Cooperative learning. Resources for teachers. San Juan Capistrano, CA: Resources for teachers.
Kluwe, R. H. (1982). Cognitive knowledge and executive control: Metacognition. In D. R. Griffin (Ed.), Animal mind – human mind (pp. 201–224). New York: Springer Verlag.
Konold, T. R., Jamison, K. R., Stanton-Chapman, T. L., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2010). Relationships among informant based measures of social skills and student achievement: A longitudinal examination of differential effects by sex. Applied Developmental Science, 14(1), 18–34.
Marzano, R. J. (2000). A new era of school reform: Going where the research takes us. Aurora, CO: Mid Continent Research for Education and Learning.
Marzano, R. J. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R. J., Gaddy, B. B., & Dean, C. (2000). What works in classroom instruction. Aurora, Co: McREL. Retrieved 20.08.2014 from http://www.peecworks.org/peec/peec_research/I01795EFA.3/Marzano%20What_Works.pdf
Mischel, W., & Gilligan, C. F. (1964). Delay of gratification, motivation for the prohibited gratification, and responses to temptation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 411–417.
Nelson-LeGall, S. (1992). Children’s instrumental help seeking: Is role in the social acquisition and construction of knowledge. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz & N. Miller (Eds.), Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning (pp. 49–70). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teachers effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257.
Peklaj, C. (2010). Teacher competencies in a knowledge society. In C. Peklaj (Ed.), Teacher competencies and educational goals (pp. 37–50). Schriften zur Bilduns- und Freizeitwissenschaft, Band 6. Aachen: Shaker Verlag.
Peklaj, C., & Vodopivec, B. (1999). Effects of co-operative versus individualistic learning on cognitive, affective, metacognitive and social processes in students. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14(3), 359–373.
Perry, V., Albeg, L., & Tung, C. (2012). Meta-analysis of single-case design research on self-regulatory interventions for academic performance. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21, 217–229.
Recommendations of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18th December 2006 on key competencies for lifelong learning (2006). Official Journal of the European Union, L 349/10, EN, 30. 12. 2006. Retrieved 21.01.2008 from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/I_39420061230en00100018.pdf
Roseth, C. J., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2008). Promoting early adolescents’ achievement and peer relationships: The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures. Psychological Bulletin, 13(2), 233–246.
Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2001). Defining and selecting key competencies. Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1994). The Tennessee value-added assessment system (TVAAS): Mixed model methodology in educational assessment. Journal of Personal Evaluation in Education, 8, 299–311.
Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Self-regulated learning. From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York: Guilford.
Seidel, T., & Shavelson, R. J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: The role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 454–499.
Tamim, R. M., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. C., & Schmid, R. F. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 8(1), 4–28.
Uttal, D. H., Meadow, N. G., Tipton, E., Hand, L. L., Alden, A. R., Warren, C., & Newcombe, N. S. (2013). The malleability of spatial skills: A meta-analysis of training studies. Psychological Bulletin, 139(2), 352–402.
Walberg, H. J. (2006). Improving educational productivity: An assessment of extant research. In R. F Subotnik & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), The scientific basis of educational productivity (pp. 103–160). Greenwich, Co: IAP.
Weinert, F. E. (2001).Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In D. S. Rychen & L. H. Salganik (Eds.), Defining and selecting key competencies (pp. 45–66). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
Wigfield, A., Klauda, S. L., & Cambira, J. (2011). Influences on the development of academic selfregulatory processes. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 33–48). New York: Rutledge.
Wright, S. P., Horn, S. P., & Sanders, W. L. (1997). Teacher and classroom effects on student achievement. Implications for teacher evaluation. Journal of Personal Evaluation in Education, 11, 57–67.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation. A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13–41). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
In order to ensure both the widest dissemination and protection of material published in CEPS Journal, we ask Authors to transfer to the Publisher (Faculty of Education, University of Ljubljana) the rights of copyright in the Articles they contribute. This enables the Publisher to ensure protection against infringement.