Investigating the Effectiveness of a Dynamic Integrated Approach to Teacher Professional Development

  • Panayiotis Antoniou
  • Leonidas Kyriakides
  • Bert Creemers
Keywords: Dynamic integrated approach, Educational effectiveness research stages of teaching skills, Evaluation of teacher improvement, Teacher professional development


This paper argues that research on teacher professional development could be integrated with validated theoretical models of educational effectiveness research (EER). A dynamic integrated
approach (DIA) to teacher professional development is proposed. The methods and results of a study comparing the impact of the DIA and the Holistic - Reflective Approach (HA) to teacher professional development are presented. Teaching skills and teacher perceptions of teaching of 130 teachers and the achievement of their students (n=2356) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Teachers found to be at a certain developmental stage were randomly allocated evenly into two groups. The first group employed the DIA and
the second the HA. Teachers employing the DIA managed to improve their teaching skills more than teachers employing the HA. Teacher perceptions and attitudes towards teaching have not been modified due to their participation in the interventions. On the other hand, the use of DIA also had a significant impact on student achievement. Implications of findings for the use of EER for improvement purposes are drawn and suggestions for research and practice in teacher professional development are provided.


Download data is not yet available.


Alger, C. (2009). Secondary teachers’ conceptual metaphors of teaching and learning:
Changes over the career span. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 743 – 751.

Antoniou, P. (2009). Using the Dynamic Model of Educational Effectiveness to Improve
Teaching Practice: Building an Evaluation Model to Test the Impact of Teacher Professional
Development Programs. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Cyprus, Cyprus.

Berliner, D. (1992). Expertise in teaching. In F. Oser, J. – L.Patry & A. Dick (Eds.), Effective
and responsible teaching (pp. 227-249). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bond, T., & Fox, C. (2001). Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the
Human Sciences. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Available from IOM.).

Borko, H. (2004). Professional development and teacher learning: Mapping the terrain.
Educational Researcher, 33(8), 3-15.

Byrne, B. (1998). Structural equation modeling with LISREL, PRELIS, and SIMPLIS: Basic
concepts, applications and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Calderhead, T. (1989). Reflective teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 5(1), 43-51.

Chandler, P., Robinson, W.P., & Noyes, P. (1991). Is a Proactive Student Teacher a Better
Student Teacher? Research in Education, 45(May), 41-52.

Clarke, D., & Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional
growth. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(8), 947–967.

Cochran-Smyth, M., & Zeichner, K. (2005). Studying teacher education. The report of
the AERA panel on research and teacher education. USA: American Education Research

Cohen, D.K. (1990). A revolution in one classroom: The case of Mrs. Oublier. Educational
Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12(3), 311-329.

Cornford, I. R. (2002). Reflective teaching: empirical research findings and some
implications for teacher education. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54(2),

Creemers, B. P. M., & Reezigt, G. J. (1997). School effectiveness and school improvement:
Sustaining links. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 8(4), 396 – 429.

Creemers, B. P. M., & Kyriakides, L. (2006). A critical analysis of the current approaches
to modelling educational effectiveness: the importance of establishing a dynamic model.
School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 17(3), 347-366.

Creemers, B. P. M., & Kyriakides, L. (2008). The Dynamics of Educational Effectiveness: A
Contribution to Policy, Practice and Theory in Contemporary Schools. London: Routledge.
Creemers, B. P. M., Kyriakides, L., & Antoniou, P. (Eds.) (in press). A Dynamic Approach
to Teacher Training and Professional Development. New York, USA: Springer Publishing.

Day, C. (1999). Developing Teachers: the challenges of lifelong learning. London: Falmer

Desimone, M.L., Porter, C.A., Garet, S.M., Yoon, S.K., & Birman, F.B. (2002). Effects of
professional development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal
study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 81-112.

Elliot, J. (2002, August). Action research as the basis of a new professionalism for teachers
in an age of globalisation. Paper presented at a conference to celebrate the centenary year
of Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Gilberts, G. H., & Lignugaris-Kraft, B. (1997). Classroom management and instruction
competencies for preparing elementary and special education teachers. Teaching and
Teacher Education, 13(6), 597-610.

Golby, M., & Viant, R., (2007). Means and ends in professional development. Teacher
Development, 11(2), 237 – 243.

Goodrum, D., Cousins, J., & Kinnear, P. J. (1992). The reluctant primary school teacher.
Research in Science Education, 22(2), 163-169.

Grossman, P. L., & Stodolsky, S. S. (1995). Content as contest: the role of school subjects in
secondary school teaching. Educational Researcher, 24(8), 5–11.

Guskey, T. R., & Sparks, D (2004). Linking professional development to improvements in
student learning. In E. M. Guyton & J. R. Dangel (Eds.), Teacher Education Yearbook XII:
Research Linking Teacher Preparation and Student Performance. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/

Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and
implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-49.

Joyce, B.R., & Showers, B. (1980). Improving inservice training: The messages of research.
Educational Leadership, 37(5), 379-385.

King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and
promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescents and adults. San Francisco:

Kyriakides, L., & Creemers, B. P. M. (2008). Using a multidimensional approach to
measure the impact of classroom-level factors upon student achievement: a study testing
the validity of the dynamic model. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19(2),

Kyriakides, L., Creemers, B. P. M., & Antoniou, P. (2009). Teacher behaviour and student
outcomes: Suggestions for research on teacher training and professional development.
Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 12-23.

Marcoulides, G. A., & Drezner, Z. (1999). A procedure for detecting pattern clustering in
measurement designs. In M. Wilson & G. Engelhard, Jr. (Eds.), Objective measurement:
Theory into practice (Vol. 5). Westport, Conn.: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

McNamara, D. (1990). Research on Teachers’ Thinking: its contribution to educating
student teachers to think critically. Journal of Education for Teaching, 16(2).

Ministry of Education (1994). The New Curriculum. Nicosia: Ministry of Education.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy
concept. Review of Educational Research, 62(2), 307–332.

Phelan, A. M., & McLaughlin, H. J. (1995). Educational discourses, the nature of the child,
and the practice of new teachers. Journal of Teacher Education, 46(3), 165–174.

Reynolds, D., Hopkins, D., & Stoll, L. (1993). Linking school effectiveness knowledge
and school improvement practice: Towards a synergy. School Effectiveness and School
Improvement, 4(1), 37–58.

Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New
York: Basic Books.

Sharon, D. (1987). The Renfrew Quality Education Project: Teachers’ views after the first
year. Working Papers of the Planning and Development Research Branch, TV Ontario,

Snijders, T., & Bosker, R. (1999). Multilevel Analysis: An Introduction to Basic and
Advanced Multilevel Modeling. London: Sage.

Stoiber, K. (1991) The Effect of Technical and Reflective Instruction on Pedagogical
Reasoning and Problem Solving. Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 131-139.

Tom, A. (1985). Inquiring into inquiry-oriented teacher education. Journal of Teacher
Education, 36(5), 35-44.

U. S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Teacher
quality: A report on the preparation and qualifications of public school teachers (NCES 1999-
080). Washington, DC: Author.

Van Manen, M. (2002). The pathic principle of pedagogical language. Teaching and
Teacher Education, 18(2), 215–224.

Winitzky, N., & Arends, R. (1991), ‘Translating Research into Practice: The Effects of
Various Forms of Training and Clinical Experience on Preservice Students’ Knowledge,
Skill and Reflectiveness’. Journal of Teacher Education, 42(1), 52-65.

Wubbels, Th., & Korthagen, F. (1990). The effects of preservice teacher education program
for the preparation of reflective teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching, 16(1), 29-43.

Zeichner, K.M. (1987). Preparing reflective teachers: An overview of instructional
strategies which have been employed in preservice teacher education. International
Journal of Educational Research, 11(5), 565-575.